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  • 산청출장맛사지╖24시출장샵→산청트레이너 마사지『산청철구 마사지』⇙{산청av 마사지}⇋산청안마♮산청귀 마사지╠ 산청동대문 안마방➶산청강남 안마방 후기シ산청체코 마사지 토렌트

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    목포출장안마
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    산청출장맛사지┎예약금없는출장샵☺산청트레이너 마사지『산청태국마사지 후기』ヌ{산청호치민 리버티 마사지}➴산청안마방 몰카 tumblr╈산청마사지 카드 단속☀산청경주 안마방┏산청간석오거리 안마방╍산청속초 모텔 추천

    The governments of more than 190 nations 삼척구글 재펜 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    산청출장맛사지⇃출장부르는법◥산청트레이너 마사지『산청남친이랑 마사지』◤{산청온천장 안마방}♦산청흑인 마사지┪산청아프리카tv 마사지♝산청산호동 마사지✖산청중국 마사지 체험기⇀산청단발 안마방

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    산청출장맛사지☽출장부르는법▧산청트레이너 마사지『산청후불제 출장샵』ネ{산청안마방 예약}➨산청후불제 출장샵♣산청안마방 모음♀산청안마방 단골➼산청건강 마사지ム산청심장 마사지

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories jtvx.xyz . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    산청출장맛사지◈24시출장샵★산청트레이너 마사지『산청kcm 안마방』☚ {산청남양주 마사지}┇산청안마방 아침↾산청타이 마사지 서비스⇠산청나비야 마사지⇂산청수유 마사지▌산청출장코스가격

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 원주하남 안마방 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    산청출장맛사지┅24시출장샵↲산청트레이너 마사지『산청보령 마사지』☎{산청안마방 단속 확률}↕산청태국 마사지 가격♀산청방콕 에스코트╖산청로미 로미 마사지 란▨산청로미 마사지◆산청대전 유성 안마방

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 대전출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

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  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    산청출장맛사지☀24시출장샵ホ산청트레이너 마사지『산청신중동 마사지』▐{산청역삼 안마방}➳산청출장미인아가씨┗산청일베 모텔♡산청의정부 모텔 가격☱산청오창 안마방フ산청gigi rivera 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 춘천봉천 안마방 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 광주출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    온라인카지노
    포항태국 마사지 종류 창원출장안마 인천한국인 마사지
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 수원출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    산청출장맛사지╘24시출장샵┛산청트레이너 마사지『산청전주 모텔 추천』◦{산청의정부 마사지}U산청1인샵 마사지囍산청건대 마사지✔산청프리마호텔 마사지═산청음부 마사지➵산청전주 마사지 클럽

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 용인안마방 튜브 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    산청출장맛사지U출장부르는법╝산청트레이너 마사지『산청별내 안마방』✚{산청마사지 노출}▄산청검단 안마방▀산청송내 마사지✔산청안마방 미러┤산청안마방 감염│산청서울샵

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 목포출장샵 .

    충청남도콜걸
    청도출장샵안내 광주출장안마 고령속초 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    산청출장맛사지❥예약금없는출장샵☟산청트레이너 마사지『산청계산동 안마방』㍿{산청원룸 출장}↺산청일산 모텔 추천╥산청울산 안마방 추천╜산청김해 출장 샵•산청남성전용◣산청서울역 안마방

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 바카라사이트 .

    산청출장맛사지ロ예약금없는출장샵●산청트레이너 마사지『산청안마방 동창』ア{산청안중 마사지}W산청서산시 안마방☜산청당동 안마방◣산청이태원 마사지☆산청구미 모텔ス산청마사지 물

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 창원출장안마 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 청주엄지 눈 근육 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    산청출장맛사지▬24시출장샵└산청트레이너 마사지『산청브베 안마방』♣{산청구로디지털단지 마사지}➷산청안마방 전화☎산청정왕 안마방➢산청홍콩 안마방┍산청출장업소㊣산청안마방 몰카

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    산청출장맛사지❀예약♯산청트레이너 마사지『산청에이미 안마방』☆{산청콜걸추천}☇산청신도림 마사지♗산청다방 모텔✍산청필리핀 마사지┒산청안마방 유출▒산청정왕 안마방

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 금산유성 안마방 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 광주출장샵 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 서울출장안마 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 남양주칭다오 마사지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that egw.xyz . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    산청출장맛사지▄24시출장샵λ산청트레이너 마사지『산청부평 마사지 샵』↛{산청안마방 위험}⇗산청조치원 마사지→산청얼굴 마사지☏산청유선 마사지♦산청[한국]새로운 안마방 아가씨.wmv.torrentハ산청서울대입구 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 카지노사이트 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 천안출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 수원출장안마 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    산청출장맛사지╃예약금없는출장샵☽산청트레이너 마사지『산청금호동 안마방』♠{산청연신내 안마방}ヒ산청냉정 안마방ロ산청한국야동 안마방⇟산청호치민 리버티 마사지 가격▨산청미금 안마방┇산청안마방 g컵

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    군산왕십리 마사지
    구미출장안마 김포군산 모텔 가격 카지노사이트
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    산청출장맛사지π예약╝산청트레이너 마사지『산청일본야동 마사지』◈{산청강서구 마사지}╰산청강동구 마사지┼산청검단 안마방╪산청금촌 안마방┸산청대전 모텔 다방⇩산청앙헬레스 마사지

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.산청출장맛사지산청시각장애인 마사지ⓥ산청안마방 ㅅㅅ♮{산청마사지 야.동}산청광주 안마방 후기√산청국 안마방◐산청화성 마사지☏산청석계 안마방❦부산출장안마예약금없는출장샵산청안산 대딸방↨산청태국 마사지 마무리➺「산청안마방 황제의자」산청두피 마사지♩산청후불제 출장샵✔산청전립선 마사지 썰.산청모텔 젤╁산청출장맛사지논산야동 안마방산청마사지 태국어═산청아로마 마사지 부작용┠‹산청천안 출장마사지›산청안마방 처음╓산청안마방 못쌈♧산청안마방 단속 일베◙산청출장마사지⇞산청호텔 걸ノ산청호구포 마사지┗[산청video fc2 마사지]산청일본 마사지◈산청마사지 토렌트➵산청안마방 초이스.mp4↺산청콜걸 후기ν산청서울역 마사지⇢산청대전 안마방☶<산청화성시 안마방>산청크라운제이 안마방↖산청진해 마사지↔산청안마방 나이⇟산청호텔식 마사지➥산청진영 안마방☢산청야동 마사지╗<산청프라하 마사지>산청안마방 시스템╘산청마사지 앱↹산청야탑 마사지 후기⇠산청용현동 마사지➸예약금없는출장샵의령천호동 안마방24시출장샵산청마사지 추천⇪산청부산 서면 출장•《산청다방 콜》산청경산 사우나 마사지]산청안마방 카드결제✔산청셀프 어깨 마사지♐산청다방 모텔☭산청출장맛사지산청출장맛사지창원출장안마산청압구정 마사지산청태국 마사지 종류산청안마방 통화기록산청하이퐁 마사지산청출장맛사지산청안마방 몰카❦산청장애인 안마방✒﹝산청마사지 동영상﹞산청논현동 안마방╡산청울산 안마방 추천リ산청속초 모텔 가격ワ산청구미 모텔╆시흥금정 안마방

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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